Abstract: The management of benign breast disease and common breast problems would be far simpler if medicine had progressed to the point where cancer could be definitively ruled out as the underlying problem. In contrast to other types of cancer of the reproductive tract, only hypotheses exist for the etiology of breast cancer, and the preventive, screening, and diagnostic tools remain relatively blunt in comparison with clinician need. Thus, the sojourn time (subclinical period) for breast cancer has remained stubbornly resistant to the attempts at earlier diagnosis, especially in young women. Therefore, except in pediatric cases, the first step in the evaluation of all breast problems is to take every reasonable step to rule out malignancy. This monograph provides a summary of the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches supported by scientific literature and suggested clinical management in scenarios where science is inadequate. Pertinent history, examination technique, screening and diagnostic intervals, and the management of common symptoms and findings are addressed.